Mankind has entered the 21st century. What kind of cars will we use in the new century? At auto exhibitions all over the world, people are looking for answers from a variety of concept cars. In early 2002, General Motors first revealed at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit that it was considering a concept car called Hy-Wire (meaning a car driven and driven by “hydrogen and wires”. Hy stands for hydrogen. Wire stands for transmission control. Signal wire), 8 months later, at the Paris Motor Show on September 26, 2002. A driveable Hy-Wire concept car was unveiled to the public. This is a hydrogen fuel cell and control signal wire transmission technology A revolutionary design concept car combined together. It also has a revolutionary design displayed by General Motors under the name “AUTO-nomy”, which is likely to be the car we will use in the future. Figure 1 shows the general concept of the car design.
This car is divided into two parts: the body and the chassis. The chassis design is similar to a “four-wheel skateboard”. The body head does not have an engine compartment because it does not have a traditional internal combustion engine, but uses a fuel cell as a power source. There is no between the body and the chassis. Any mechanical rods are connected with hydraulic pipelines. There are no accelerator pedals, clutches, brakes and other pedals in the upper body, and there is no traditional steering wheel. There is only one driving part that looks like an airplane. All the actions of the driver driving the vehicle are converted into digital electrical signals, and then transmitted through the wires to the control components on the “four-wheel skateboard” to realize various driving actions such as steering, braking, and acceleration of the vehicle. The car is like driving an airplane. The driver gently manipulates the ergonomically designed “handle”, which enables the vehicle to accelerate, travel, brake, stop and steer.
From Figure 2, you can see the layout of the front half of the car. There is also a 147mm color electronic monitor on the operating parts. The main information about the vehicle (speed, mileage, fuel condition, etc.) can be displayed on it. In addition, cameras placed on the sides and rear of the car can display the road conditions behind the car. In addition, there is a second monitor on both sides of the driver, telling you about audio, temperature, humidity and navigation information.
All parts of the vehicle, such as transmission system, electronic control device, fuel cell stack, fuel tank, etc., are all installed in the middle part of 279.4mm (1lin). Both ends are 228.6mm (9in) thick. GM calls it “four-wheeled” Skateboard chassis” (see Figure 3). Because the fuel cell is different from the internal combustion engine, its shape and size can be changed according to the installation space. This “four-wheel skateboard chassis” has a low center of gravity, and the vehicle has excellent stability.
General Motors said that they only need to manufacture three types of chassis: standard chassis, four-wheel drive chassis and sports car chassis, to meet the needs of the past 13 chassis. With these three types of chassis, various car bodies and even different motors and fuel cells can be installed on it, which brings great convenience to meet the individual needs of customers.
Since there are no mechanical rods and hydraulic connections between the body and the chassis, the installation and replacement of the body is very convenient. Like computer installation, the electrical connection between the all-aluminum chassis and the fiberglass body can be completed through a butt joint. The body can be firmly connected to the chassis through several body fixing devices. This brand-new vehicle structure gives great freedom to the body design. The interior space of the body is spacious, the leg space in front of the seat can be large, and the comfort is greatly improved (see Figure 4 ). They can use a large front windshield, so that everyone in the car has a wide road view. The upper surface of the skateboard chassis makes the FRP floor and the steel body floor very flat. The B-shaped pillar between the doors can be eliminated. The doors can be opened at the same time. It is more convenient to get in and out of the carriage. For the car owner, the coolest thing may be that he only needs to buy a skateboard-type chassis, coupled with several different bodies, and can have a car for several purposes by changing the body as needed. At the same time, it saves a lot of money.
The technical specifications of the “Hy-Wire” (Ha-Wayer) exhibited at the North American International Auto Show in January 2003 are as follows.
The vehicle uses hydrogen fuel cells and digital wires to transmit driving signals, front-wheel drive, 5-seater luxury sedan; body length 5m, wheelbase 3114mm, steel and glass fiber; maximum speed 160km/h; vehicle mass 1900kg.
Skateboard chassis: all aluminum frame, length X width X height 4357mmX 1670mmX279mm.
Fuel storage system: 3 carbon composite high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks, pressure 35MPa, hydrogen storage capacity 2kg, total weight 75kg.
Fuel cell: composed of 200 cells, voltage 125~200V. Continuous power 94kW, peak value 129kW, power density 1. 60kW/L, 0.94kW/kg.
Drive motor: Three-phase asynchronous motor with planetary gear reduction (transmission ratio of 8.67:1), working voltage 250~380V, maximum speed 12000r/min, maximum power 60kW, maximum torque 215N·m, and total weight 92kg.
“Hy-wire” is a product of global cooperation. The United States, Germany, Italy and Sweden have all participated in the development of the concept car. The designers and engineers of General Motors in the United States are responsible for the development of vehicle chassis and body design, as well as the integration of the entire vehicle and electrical systems. Engineers at the General Research Institute in Mainz, Germany, are responsible for the integration of the fuel cell propulsion system.
General Motors has continuously demonstrated its Hy-Wire concept prototypes, reflecting that people are seeking a brand-new car design concept to solve many problems that existing cars bring to the environment, energy and society. Compared with a car that appeared before this epoch. Hy-Wire has distinctive features in terms of motive force, driving control method, and structural form. Whether it can become the mainstream direction of automobile development remains to be tested in practice. And the realization of commercial products There is still a long way to go before the transformation. But no matter what. Its appearance should be regarded as an important event in the history of automobile development.